Closed-Loop Zero-Waste Zero-Carbon Processes

<a href=””>Hariharan Pv on ResearchGate</a>




We may ask: What is Zero-Waste Zero-Carbon Business model?  This is answered as follows:

Most village regions are endowed with varieties of trees/ plants/ vegetation systems as well as grazing cattle and other farm animals. These are the resources with which we work in arriving at Zero-Waste Zero-Carbon Business-Model (ZW-ZC-BM). Two things stand out in our system: (i) We start our business activity by collecting various Agrowastes, Wood wastes, Food wastes, Organic wastes and non-toxic carbonaceous wastes. (ii) The main phenomenon that triggers our further processes is based on converting all “green vegetation” into their mechanically separable components: Fibrous matter and “sludge” bio-matter”.

The fibrous matter (which constitutes between 45% to 75% cellulose) could be converted into Engineered Composites. These Engineered Composites could range from small household utilitarian products (e.g. Garment buttons, electrical accessories and the like) to heavy duty automotive structure, boat hulls and modular housing systems. A few examples of Engineered products are presented here.

Click on the illustration to EnlargeAlternate Engineering materials

Alternate Engineering materials

The sludge bio-matter is converted into Biogas + Biofertilizer, through anaerobic process. Biogas (Methane + H2S + CO2 + moisture) would be further processed so that H2S and CO2 are scrubbed, and recoverable water recycled. Methane gas of 99% purity is, thus, obtained, and this would be burnt in modified IC Engines to produce Heat + Electricity. H2S yields Sulfur; and CO2 is sequestered using certain Industrial wastes, and the resultant products are further converted into high value Carbon Sink Engineered Products (CSEP).

The result is “closed-loop” Integrated, industrial processes yielding the following minimum products, at Three levels:


  1. Fibrous matter from vegetation materials

  2. Sludge Bio-matter


Biogas … {Methane gas + CO2 + H2S + Moisture + Biofertilizer}

C. LEVEL-3: (See Illustration below)

  1. Fibrous matter converted into Natural Fiber Composites (NFPC in the form of special Molded products)

  2. CO2 is Sequestered into Carbon Sink Engineered Products (CSEP in the form of adhesives, and moldings)

  3. Sludge Biofertilizer is obtained (with about 98% Bio-water)

  4. H2S is scrubbed and Sulfur is precipitated

  5. Methane gas is burnt in modified IC Engine to develop Power (Both Heat and Electricity)

    (End-products are shown in bold-face letters)

There are no effluents; and almost all input materials are either converted into end-products or recycled insitu (no wastage, including the CO2 generated in anaerobic Biogas process), resulting in Zero-Waste Zero-Carbon Business-Model (ZW-ZC-BM). The Banana Farm wastes conversion is an example, as shown here

Click on the Illustration to enlarge

Zero-Waste Zero-Carbon Business-Model_Processes


Here is a More Generalized Concept of ZW-ZC-BM:

Closed-Loop ZW-ZC-BM


Updated on September 28, 2018


8 responses to “Closed-Loop Zero-Waste Zero-Carbon Processes


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